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Skeletal System – Skeletons, Joints & Bones – part two

THIS IS PART TWO.

YOU CAN READ PART ONE AT THE POST PUBLISHED BEFORE THIS ONE.   PART ONE INCLUDES BONE INTERNAL STRUCTURE & BONE TISSUE

A joint is the point where two or more bones meet. There are three main types of joints – Fibrous (immoveable & held together by a ligament), cartilaginous (partly moveable, held together by cartilage) and the Synovial (freely moveable) joint. Synovial joints consist of a synovial capsule (collagenous structure) surrounding the entire joint, a synovial membrane (the inner layer of the capsule) which secretes synovial fluid (a lubricating liquid) and cartilage known as hyaline cartilage (a flexible connective tissue) which pads the ends of the articulating bones.  An example of a Fibrous joint is where the teeth are attached to their bony sockets. The vertebrae have cartilaginous joints between them.

Examples of Synovial Joints follow.

A hinge joint allows movement in a certain spot to take place. This joint is similar to the opening and closing of a door. Some examples of hinge joints are the elbow, knee, ankle and joints between the fingers. Hinge joints allow the body parts to bend and straighten.

Ball and socket joints allow twisting and turning movements. In a ball and socket joint, one of the bones has a rounded head which is the ball. The other bone has a cup-like area that is known as the socket. Some of these joints are the shoulder and the hip. The shoulder joint is the most flexible joint in the entire body. It allows movement in any direction.

There are other types of joints in the body. Gliding joints allow two flat bones to slide over each other like in the bones of the foot and wrist. A condyloid joint allows the head to nod and the fingers to bend. The thumbs have a saddle joint that allows enough flexibility for the thumb to touch any other finger.

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